Thứ Tư, 18 tháng 5, 2016

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Animal Farm  is an allegorical as well as dystopian novella by George Orwell, initial published in England on 17 August 1945. According to Orwell, the book shows occasions preceeding the Russian Transformation of 1917 and then on into the Stalinist period of the Soviet Union. [1] Orwell, a democratic socialist, [2] was a doubter of Joseph Stalin and also aggressive to Moscow-directed Stalinism, an attitude that was seriously formed by his encounters throughout the Spanish Civil War. [3] The Soviet Union, he believed, had become a ruthless dictatorship, built upon a cult of individuality as well as enforced by a regime of terror. In a letter to Yvonne Davet, Orwell explained Pet Farm as a satirical tale against Stalin ("un conte satirique contre Staline"), [4] and also in his essay "Why I Compose" (1946), composed that Pet Ranch was the first book where he tried, with full consciousness of just what he was doing, "to fuse political objective and also creative objective into one whole".
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The original title was Animal Ranch: A Fairy Story; U.S. authors dropped the subtitle when it was released in 1946, and only one of the translations during Orwell's life time maintained it. Other titular variations include captions like "A Witticism" as well as "A Contemporary Satire". [4] Orwell recommended the title Union des républiques socialistes animales for the French translation, which abbreviates to URSA, the Latin for "bear", a sign of Russia, which also played on the French name of the Soviet Union, Union des républiques socialistes soviétiques. [4]
Orwell created the book in between November 1943 as well as February 1944, when the UK remained in its wartime partnership with the Soviet Union as well as the British people as well as intelligentsia held Stalin in high esteem, a phenomenon Orwell hated. [5] The composition was at first denied by a number of British and also American publishers, [6] consisting of one of Orwell's own, Victor Gollancz, which postponed its magazine. It came to be an excellent commercial success when it did appear partly because international connections were changed as the wartime alliance gave way to the Cold War. [7]
Time magazine chose guide as one of the ONE HUNDRED finest English-language novels (1923 to 2005); [8] it additionally showcased at number 31 on the Modern Library Listing of Finest 20th-Century Novels. It won a Retrospective Hugo Award in 1996, and also is likewise consisted of in the Great Books of the Western World choice.
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